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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Evaluation of 1071 reoperations for myocardial revascularization

Luís Alberto DallanI; Sérgio Almeida de OliveiraII; Januário M SouzaIII; Marcelo B JateneI; José Carlos R IgléziasI; Pedro Carlos P LemosI; José Otávio C Auler JúniorI; Geraldo VerginelliI; Fúlvio PileggiI; Adib D JateneI

DOI: 10.1590/S0102-76381992000200001

ABSTRACT

Between January 1979 and January 1992, 1071 coronary bypass graft reoperations were performed at the Heart Institute and Beneficencia Portuguesa Hospital. Of these, 1015 were reoperated upon once, 53 twice and 3 three times. The surgeries were due to spread of coronary atherosclerosis in 117 patients (10.9%), partial or total graft occlusion in 183 (17.1%), combination of the prior factors in 728 (67.9%), technical problems in 21 (1.9%), and others in 22 (2.1%). The patients ages varied from 34 to 84 years (mean 61.6), predominantly male (86.1%) and Caucasian (96.5%). The period between the first and second operations varied from the same day to 22 years after (mean 9,3%), the second and third from one to 11 years (mean 8.0) and between the third and fourth seven to nine years (mean 7.7). During the surgical procedures: one mammary artery in 610 (56.9%) cases, both mammary arteries in 192 (17.9%), gastroepiploic arteries in six (0.6%) and epigastric arteries in five (0.5%) were used. In 813 (75.9%) of the 1071 reoperations at least one arterial graft was employed in the coronary bypass grafts. There were 87 (8.1%) hospital deaths in this period, of which 39 (44.8%) were directly related to ventricle dysfunction, and 48 (55.2%) caused by other complications: pulmonary 22, sepsis 8, coagulation 7, neurologic 6 and mesenteric ischemia 5. The principal factors associated to mortality were: I) preoperative risk factors were: diabetes, hypertension, high colesterol, obesity, smoking, hereditary history, etc.; 731 patients presented up to two risk factors with 35 deaths (4.8%); 299 presented three or four with 38 (12.7%) deaths and in 4 patients there were five or more risk factors, with 14 (34.1 %) deaths; 2) preoperative functional class: 317 were in class I or II, 11 (3.5%) of which died; 449 were in class III, 39 (8.7%) having died; and 305 in class IV with 46 (15.1%) deaths. Triarterial vessels compromised associated or not to main trunk lesion: 788 presented this complication, of which 74 (9.4%) died. Among 283 characterized by uni or biarterial lesions, 13 (4.3%) having died; 3) surgery status: 110 emergency operations with 35 deaths (31.8%), 961 elective surgeries 52 (5.4%) having died. In the last two years, however, 379 coronary bypass graft reoperations were performed with only 13 deaths (3.5%). This decreased in mortality in relation to the preceding years was attributed, among other factors, to the improved methods of myocardial protection, especially in patients with worse ventricle condition. It was also emphasized in the last two years the arterial graft usage in the reoperations. Mean usage of at least one arterial graft in the reoperations was 82.2%. It is strongly believed that the best results can be reached through adequate surgical handling, increased employment of the arterial graft and especially avoiding emergency situations by earlier reoperation.

RESUMO

Entre janeiro de 1979 e janeiro de 1992, foram realizadas 1071 reoperações para revascularização do miocárdio, no Instituto do Coração e em um de seus Serviços afiliados (Hospital da Beneficência Portuguesa - São Paulo). Destas, 1015 consistiam na primeira reoperação, 53 na segunda e 3 na terceira. A reoperaçáo foi motivada por progressão da aterosclerose coronária em 117 (10,9%) casos, oclusão parcial ou total dos enxertos em 183 (17,1%), sua associação em 728 (67,9%), por problemas técnicos em 21 (1,9%) e por outras causas em 22 (2,1 %). A idade dos pacientes variou de 34 a 84 anos (M=61,6), com predomínio do sexo masculino (86,1%) e da raça branca (96,5%). O período entre a primeira e a segunda operação variou do mesmo dia a 22 anos (M=9,3). Entre a segunda e a terceira, esse período variou de 1 a 11 anos (M=8,0) e entre a terceira e a quarta variou de 7 a 9 anos (M=7,7). Na reoperação, utilizou-se enxerto de uma das artérias mamárias em 610 (56,9%) casos, ambas artérias mamárias em 192 (17,9%), artéria gastroepiplóica em 6 (0,6%) e artéria epigástrica em 5 (0,5%). No total, em 813 (75,9%), das 1071 reoperações, empregou-se ao menos um enxerto arterial na revascularização do miocárdio. Foram observados 87 (8,1%) óbitos hospitalares nesse período, dos quais 39 (44,8%) diretamente relacionados à disfunção ventricular e 48 (55,2%) decorrentes de outras complicações: pulmonares (22), sepsis (8), distúrbios da coagulação (7), neurológicas (6), isquemia mesentérica (5). Diversos fatores foram associados à maior mortalidade, dentre os quais destacamos: 1) fatores de risco pré-operatórios (diabetes, hipertensão, hipercolesterolemia, obesidade, tabagismo, familiar etc.): 731 apresentavam até dois fatores de risco, com 35 (4,8%) óbitos; 299 tinham três ou quatro desses fatores de risco, com 38 (12,7%) óbitos e em 4 havia cinco ou mais fatores de risco, com 14 (34,1%) óbitos; 2) classe funcional (CF) pré-operatória: 317 encontravam-se em CF I ou II, dos quais 7 (2,2%) faleceram; 449 em CF III, com 34 (7,6%) óbitos e 305 em CF IV, com 46 (15,1%) óbitos; 3) comprometimento triarterial associado ou não a lesão de tronco: 788 apresentavam tal tipo de comprometimento arterial, dos quais 74 (9,4%) faleceram. Dentre 283 com lesão uni ou biarterial, 13 (4,6%) foram a óbito; 4) caráter de emergência da cirurgia: dentre 110 operações de emergência, foram observados 35 (31,8%) óbitos. Dentre 961 cirurgias eletivas, houve 52 (5,4%) óbitos. Nos últimos dois anos, entretanto, foram realizadas 379 re-revascularizações do miocárdio, tendo sido observados apenas 13 (3,4%) óbitos. Esse decréscimo de mortalidade em relação aos anos anteriores foi atribuído, entre outros fatores, aos métodos de proteção miocárdica empregados, especialmente nos doentes com pior função ventricular. Nesses dois anos foi também dado especial destaque ao emprego de enxertos arteriais na re-revascularizaçáo do miocárdio. A média da utilização de ao menos um enxerto arterial na reoperação coronária elevou para 82,2% (259/315). Acreditamos que, através da abordagem cirúrgica adequada, da utilização crescente de enxertos arteriais e, especialmente, pela indicação cirúrgica precoce, permitindo a re-revascularização de forma eletiva e, ainda, com boa viabilidade miocárdica, os resultados futuros serão mais promissores.
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