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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Late results with the use of a valved conduit ot bovine pericardium for ventricle to pulmonary artery connection

Fernando Antônio FantiniI; Bayard Gontijo FilhoI; Martins CristianeI; Lopes Roberto MaxI; Maria G HortaI; Leonardo F DrumondI; Marcelo Frederico de CastroI; Carla OliveiraI; Arturo FerrufinoI; João Alfredo de Paula e SilvaI; Eduardo PeredoI; Juscelino Teixeira BarbosaI; Mário O VrandecicI

DOI: 10.1590/S0102-76381996000300005

ABSTRACT

The biventricular repair of congenital heart diseases with an inadequate or absent ventricle to pulmonary artery connection sometimes requires the use of extracardiac conduits. In order to study the longterm outcome of a glutaraldehyde-preserved bovine pericardial conduit valved with a stentless porcine aortic valve, we reviewed the data of 33 patients operated between November 1985 and October 1995. Patients ages ranged from 15 days to 18 years (mean 5.7 ± 4.3 years). Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (VSD) was the most frequent disease (16 cases), followed by tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve (5), truncus arteriosus (4), transposition of great arteries with VSD and pulmonary stenosis (3) and other miscellaneous (5). The overall hospital mortality was 18.2% and was related to the preoperative clinical condition; 23 patients (70%) were followed by a mean of 4.8 ± 3.0 years (ranging from 3 months to 10 years). The most common late complication observed was stenosis of the anastomosis between the conduit and the pulmonary artery present in 17.4% (4/23) of the patients and was the cause of 2 later reoperations (p=0,02); another patient was reoperated for late conduit endocarditis. This complication was also the cause of 1 of the 4 late deaths (17.4%). The last patient is waiting for surgery. The development of the anastomotic stenosis was problably due to a retraction of the pericardial tissue along the transition with the thin wall of the pulmonary artery. Up to 10 years, gross calcification impairing the function of the valve or the conduit itself could not be detected. In conclusion, the bovine pericardial conduits have shown a good performance as a vascular substitute. Calcification has not been a major drawback. The righ incidence of distal stenosis appears to be more related to a shrinking of the pericardial tissue than to technical reasons.

RESUMO

A reconstrução biventricuiar de uma série de cardiopatias congênitas requer a interposição de condutos valvados ventrículo-arteriais. Com o objetivo de analisar a evolução a longo prazo de um conduto de pericárdio bovino valvulado com bíoprótese porcina sem suporte tratado com glutaraldeído, foram revistos os prontuários de 33 pacientes operados de novembro de 1985 a outubro de 1995. A idade variou de 15 dias a 18 anos (média 5,7 ± 4,3 anos). A atresia pulmonar com comunicação interventricular (CIV) foi a lesão mais freqüente (16 casos), seguida da síndrome da valva pulmonar ausente (5), truncus arteriosus (4), transposição das grandes artérias com CIV e estenose pulmonar (3) e outras (5). A mortalidade imediata foi de 18,2%, diretamente relacionada à condição pré-operatória. Vinte e três (70%) pacientes foram acompanhados por períodos que variaram de 3 meses a 10 anos (média 4,8 ± 3,0 anos). A complicação mais freqüentemente observada no seguimento tardio foi a estenose da anastomose distai do conduto, presente em 17,4% (4/23) dos pacientes. Foram reoperados 3 (13%) pacientes, sendo que 2 deles por estenose distal (p=0,02) e 1 por endocardite tardia do conduto. A mortalidade tardia foi de 17,4% (4/23), em 1 caso devido a estenose distai. A causa da estenose distal parece ser devida a retração tecidual na área de transição entre o pericárdio bovino e o tronco pulmonar. Em até 10 anos de seguimento não ocorreu calcificação significativa que prejudicasse a função tanto da valva quanto do conduto. Em conclusão, os condutos de pericárdio bovino apresentaram uma performance satisfatória como substitutos vasculares, não tendo ocorrido calcificação significativa da valva porcina ou das paredes do conduto no seguimento tardio. A incidência de estenose na anastomose distal parece estar mais relacionada a um fenômeno de retração tecidual do que a problemas técnicos.
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