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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Heterologous mitral valve transplant. New surgical technique: initial clinical trial

Mário O VrandecicI; Bayard Gontijo FilhoI; Fernando Antônio FantiniI; João Alfredo de Paula e SilvaI; Juscelino Teixeira BarbosaI; Cristiana GutierrezI; Maurício R BarbosaI; Sérgio Almeida de OliveiraII; Mário MoreaIII

DOI: 10.1590/S0102-76381993000200002

ABSTRACT

Mitral valve replacement has been performed for the last 30 years using an aortic designed valve, to fulfil specific requirements of the left ventricle. The clinical results obtained by such devices have been generally favorable, although specific restrictions are obvious because of their design. The knowledge and experience acquired by Biocor Laboratories in the last two decades, in production of biological heart valve substitutes, contributed positively to the research, development and manufacture of the heterologous mitral valve substitute. This stentless heterologous mitral valve was implanted in 38 patients, without hospital mortality. Their mean age was 29 years. Female gender predominated (69%). The most common mitral dysfunction was the double mitral valve lesion (53%). Eighteen (47%) patients were in functional class III and 20 (53%) in class IV of the NYHA. There was one valve related complication (our first patient), due to disproportion of patients, large annulus and the incorrectly size chosen. This complication led us to the strict adherence of our protocol, which is based upon animal experimentation. The satisfactory operatory and clinical results, throughout this 12 months of follow-up, confirm that the stentless heterologous mitral valve is the natural mitral substitute, when considering mitral valve replacement. This first natural mitral valve substitute, tanned with a non-aldehyde tissue treatment, proved to avoid calcification and to produce no foreign reaction, hence it may be the best choice in order to obtain better quality of life and the desired valve durability. Using both, the natural design mitral valve and the non-aldehyde treatment, the last 6 patients of this series received this devicxe and is certainly hoped that, due to the more natural model and the non-calcificant and inhert tissue, patients own cells will be responsible to greatly delay tissue degeneration, providing longterm durability.

RESUMO

A substituição da valva mitral tem sido realizada, nestes 30 anos, usando-se o modelo aórtico. Embora o resultado clínico, na maioria dos pacientes seja satisfatório, existem, restrições específicas, tanto entre as biopróteses, como nas próteses mecânicas. A experiência no tratamento dos tecidos biológicos, assim como a fabricação de substitutos valvares, há 2 décadas, tem permitido o desenvolvimento da valva mitral heteróloga. Este substituto mitral foi implantado em 38 pacientes, com a preservação da função ventricular. A idade média foi de 29 anos, predominando o sexo feminino (69%), e a etiologia reumática em 86%. A dupla lesão foi a mais freqüente (53%). A classificação funcional deste grupo engloba (47%) em classe II e (53%) em classe IV da NYHA. A técnica cirúrgica é reproduzível e proporcionou resultados clínicos satisfatórios durante 12 meses de evolução, demonstrando que a valva mitral heteróloga é o substituto natural, quando indicada a troca valvar. Houve uma reoperação em paciente que apresentou insuficiência mitral moderada, devido à desproporção entre a valva escolhida e o anel mitral bastante dilatado. Os resultados clínico, hematológico e ecocardiográfico têm sido extremamente gratificantes, durante o período de seguimento. O desenho mitral natural, aliado ao tratamento anticalcificante, é o que deve proporcionar melhor qualidade de vida e a durabilidade desejada.
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