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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Subclavian aortoplasty with preservation of arterial flow to the left upper limb

José Teles de MendonçaI; Marcos Ramos CarvalhoI; Rika Kakuda da CostaI; Edson Franco FilhoI; Geodete Batista CostaI

DOI: 10.1590/S0102-76381993000200001

ABSTRACT

Between February 1984 and March 1992, 10 patients with aortic coarctation undetwent surgical correction with the technique of subclavian aortoplasty with preservation of arterial flow to the left upper limb. Eight of the patients were male and 2 were female. Their ages ranged from 2 months to 25 years (mean 6.3 years) and the weight ranged from 3.1 to 60 kg (mean 21.2 kg). Surgical technique basically consisted of detachment of the left subclavian artery with subsequent reimplant as a ceiling over the constricted aortic area, thus preserving the arterial flow to the left arm. In this procedure two steps are fundamental: a) wide dissection of aorta and the left subclavian artery in order to allow full mobilization of those vessels, and b) anterior aortic incision should be large to allow reimplant of the subclavian proximal flap well beyond the constricted area. This will produce a wide anatomic reconstruction without tension on the suture lines. Two modifications of the original technique have been utilized: a) resection of a segment of anterior aortic wall the base of the subclavian artery. This will allow a good aortoplasty for patients with well formed isthmus with less dislodgement of the original subclavian insertion, and b) resection of the coarcted segment, end to end anastomosis of the posterior wall and anterior widening with the previously detached and posteriorly incised subclavian artery. This modification is best indicated for small children since it will remove the adjacent ductal tissue. The original technique was utilized for three patients; the modification with and anterior aortic flap was employed in 2 patients and the technique with simultaneous resection of the coarcted area was utilized in the other 5 patients. There was a single operative death, not related to the technique. Nine patients were followed for 1 to 8 years post-operatively (mean 3.9 years). All patients remained asymptomatic, with normal arterial blood pressure and normal pulses in the second day and six years (mean 1.6 years), and demonstrated an excellent aortic widening with preservation of arterial flow to the left arm in 8 patients. One patient had a small circular constriction which produced a 20 mmHg gradient. In conclusion, the subclavian-aortoplasty with preservation of arterial flow to the left arm (basic or combined technique) allows an adequate anatomic correction, permits the subsequent aortic growth and can be utilized in the vast majority of cases of aortic coarctation treated during the pediatric age.

RESUMO

Entre fevereiro de 1984 e março de 1992, 10 pacientes portadores de coarctação da aorta foram operados utilizando-se a aorto-subclavioplastia com preservação do fluxo arterial para o membro superior esquerdo. Oito eram do sexo masculino e 2 do sexo feminino. A idade variou de 2 meses a 25 anos (média 6,3 anos) e peso de 3,1 kg a 60 kg (média 21,2 kg). A técnica consistiu basicamente na desinserção da artéria subclávia esquerda e posterior reimplante, em forma de telhado, um pouco abaixo, sobre a região coarcatada, produzindo uma importante ampliação da aorta preservando o fluxo arterial para o braço. Na realização deste procedimento deve-se atentar para dois detalhes fundamentais: a) ampla dissecção da aorta e artéria subclávia para permitir grande mobilização destes vasos; b) a abertura na parede anterior da aorta deve ser a maior possível, de modo que a artéria subclávia, quando reimplantada, ultrapasse folgadamente a região estreitada, produzindo uma restauração anatômica da luz arterial sem grandes tensões na linha de sutura. Duas modificações na técnica original foram utilizadas: a) ressecção de um segmento da parede anterior da aorta conjuntamente com a artéria subclávia empregada em pacientes com istmo bem formado, promove uma boa correção com menor deslocamento dessa artéria; b) ressecção do segmento coarctado, anastomose término-terminal posterior e ampliação anterior com a artéria subclávia (indicada nas crianças menores, com objetivo de eliminar, total ou parcialmente, o tecido ductal). A técnica padrão foi utilizada em 3 pacientes, com segmento da aorta em 2, e a ressecção do segmento coarctado em 5. Um paciente faleceu na operação (óbito não relacionado com a técnica) e 9 foram acompanhados (tempo mínimo 12 meses, máximo 8 anos e média 3,9 anos). Todos se mantiveram assintomáticos, com pressão arterial e intensidade normal de pulso nos membros inferiores. O estudo angiográfico pós-operatório realizado entre o segundo dia e o sexto ano (média 1,6 anos) evidenciou uma excelente ampliação da aorta com preservação do fluxo para o membro superior esquerdo em 8 pacientes. Em apenas 1 foi observado pequeno estrangulamento circular causando gradiente de 20 mmHg. Em conclusão, a aorto-subclavioplastia com preservação do fluxo arterial (técnica-padrão ou associada) assegura uma correção anatomicamente adequada, permite crescimento da aorta e pode ser empregada na grande maioria das coarctações tratadas na idade pediátrica.
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